Young people: Neuromuscular skills for Sport Performance

Many publications report concerns over low exercise levels in young people. At the other end of the spectrum there are potential pitfalls to be avoided for young athletes. Some aspects have been discussed in my previous articles: Exercise and fitness in young people – what factors contribute to long term health? and Optimising Health, Fitness and Sports Performance for young people, below are some updates.

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Supporting previous publications that exercise in young people improves cognitive and academic performance, it was found that in boys delay in reading skills was associated with high levels of sedentary time combined with low levels of exercise. Low muscle tone, associated with lack of exercise is also proposed as potential inhibitor of learning in children. Lack of physical activity, coupled with unfavourable body composition in young people is linked with adverse outcomes for bone development and cardio-metabolic disease in adults. Now there also appears to be long term consequences for cognitive ability and neuromuscular skills.

For young people already involved in sport training, the same principles apply in that this represents the optimal time in life for development of not only physical fitness such as CV fitness, muscular strength and endurance, but also neuromuscular skills. All these factors are important to enhance sport performance and to avoid injury. The risk of injury is more prevalent in early sport specialisation, so any strategies to minimise injury risk is important. For example, periodised strength and conditioning with neuromuscular training to reinforce the acquisition of a diverse range of motor skills. In other words to combine both health related physical fitness (eg. CV fitness) with skill related fitness (eg. co-ordination). The Pilates style body conditioning which I teach for young people, includes developing flexibility, proprioception, core stability, balance and co-ordination which are applicable for all sports.

Collaboration with coaches, sports clubs, physiotherapists and other health care professionals is required to support young people and their families in optimising health and fitness.

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Optimising Health, Fitness and Sports Performance for young people Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine

Exercise and fitness in young people – what factors contribute to long term health? Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine

Factors impacting bone development

Reading skills in sedentary boys

Muscle tone and leaning in children

Factors impacting bone development

Optimal Heath especially for Young athletes! British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine

When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries and enhance health in youth?

Sports Specialization, Part II: Alternative Solutions to Early Sport Specialization in Youth Athletes

The role of Pilates in facilitating sports performance

Health and Fitness in young people

Recent reports reveal that children in Britain are amongst the least active in the world. At the other end of the spectrum there have been a cluster of articles outlining the pitfalls of early specialisation in a single sport.

Regarding the reports of lack of physical activity amongst young people in Britain, this is of concern not only for their current physical and cognitive ability, but has repercussions for health in adult life. Research demonstrates that young people with low cardiovascular fitness have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in adult life. Conversely, the beneficial effects of weight bearing exercise in prepubescent girls has been shown to enhance bone mineral density accumulation, which will have beneficial impact on peak bone mass. However, as I found in my longitudinal studies, the level of exercise has to be in conjunction with an appropriate, well-balanced diet to avoid relative energy deficiency deficiency in sport (RED-S), which can compromise bone mineral density accumulation.m-running

At the other end of the scale, early specialisation in a single sport does not necessarily guarantee long term success. Rather, this can increase the risk of overuse injury in developing bodies, which in turn has long term consequences. Ensuring that all elements of fitness are considered may be an injury prevention strategy. I agree that injury prevention can be viewed as part of optimising sports performance, especially in young athletes for both the present and in the long term.

Sleep is a vital element in optimising health and fitness, especially in young people who may be tempted to look at mobiles or screens of other mobile devices which delays falling asleep by decreasing melatonin production. Sleep promotes mental freshness and physical elements such as boosting immunity and endogenous release of growth hormone. As Macbeth put it, sleep is the “chief nourisher in life’s great feast”.

A balanced approach to health and fitness should be promoted, with young people encouraged to take part in a range of sporting activities.

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Young athletes’ optimal health: Part 3 Consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in sports Dr N. Keay, British Association Sport and Exercise Medicine, 13/4/17

Sleep for health and sports performance Dr N. Keay, British Journal Sport Medicine, 7/2/17

Optimising health, fitness and sports performance for young people Dr N. Keay, British Journal Sport Medicine

Telegraph article

Active Healthy Kids global alliance

Poor cardiovascular fitness in young people risk for developing cardiovascular disease 

Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

IOC consensus statement on youth athletic development British Journal Sport Medicine

Optimising Health, Fitness and Sports Performance for young people

Version 2Young people need information in order to make life decisions on their health, fitness and sport training with the support of their families, teachers and coaches.

As discussed in my previous blog anima sana in corpore sano, exercise has a positive effect on all aspects of health: physical, mental and social. The beneficial impact of exercise is particularly important during adolescence where bodies and minds are changing. This time period presents a window of opportunity for young people to optimise health and fitness, both in the short term and long term.

The physical benefits of exercise for young people include development of peak bone mass, body composition and enhanced cardio-metabolic health. Exercise in young people has also been shown to support cognitive ability and psychological wellbeing.

Optimising health and all aspects of fitness in young athletes is especially important in order to train and compete successfully. During this phase of growth and development, any imbalances in training, combined with changes in proportions and unfused growth plates can render young athletes more susceptible to overuse injuries. A training strategy for injury prevention in this age group includes development of neuromuscular skills when neuroplasticity is available. Pilates is an excellent form of exercise to support sport performance.

In athletes where low body weight is an advantage for aesthetic reasons or where this confers a competitive advantage, this can lead to relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Previously known as the female athlete triad, this was renamed as male athletes can also be effected. The consequences of this relative energy deficiency state are negative effects on metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, protein synthesis and immunity. If this situation arises in young athletes, then this is of concern for current health and may have consequences for health moving into adulthood.

A well informed young person can make decisions to optimise health, fitness and sports performance.

Link to Workshops

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Optimal Health: Especially Young Athletes! Part 3 – Consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports Dr N. Keay, British Association Sport and Exercise Medicine 13/4/17

Report from Chief Medical Officer

Cognitive benefits of exercise

Injuries in young athletes

Young people: neuromuscular skills for sports performance

IOC consensus statement\

Exercise and fitness in young people – what factors contribute to long term health? Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine

 

Ballet for Injury Prevention

 

Ballet is an excellent way for people of all ages to improve mobility and build strength.

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Barnes Studio

Furthermore, if athletes take Ballet classes then this can aid in injury prevention. Ballet incorporates all the elements of a balanced training session improving core strength, muscle tone, muscle dynamics, flexibility, neuromuscular skills and proprioception. Taking Ballet class also provides an interesting challenge both mentally and physically as described in amina sana corpore sano. Ballet offers something different to the usual strength and conditioning training sessions taken by athletes.

Development of neuromuscular skills is vital for young people not only for physical fitness and enabling sports performance, but to enhance cognitive ability, both in short and long term.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recommend that if you are tempted to try Ballet, make sure you go to a class where the teacher can ensure you learn proper technique. I teach Ballet, backed up with my experience in sport medicine and Pilates, in small class setting for individual attention and correction. Whatever your previous dance experience or current level of fitness: are you ready for the challenge and some fun?

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Ballet

Stories

Anima sana corpore sano

Young people: neuromuscular skills for sports performance

AAOS