Health and Fitness in young people

Recent reports reveal that children in Britain are amongst the least active in the world. At the other end of the spectrum there have been a cluster of articles outlining the pitfalls of early specialisation in a single sport.

Regarding the reports of lack of physical activity amongst young people in Britain, this is of concern not only for their current physical and cognitive ability, but has repercussions for health in adult life. Research demonstrates that young people with low cardiovascular fitness have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in adult life. Conversely, the beneficial effects of weight bearing exercise in prepubescent girls has been shown to enhance bone mineral density accumulation, which will have beneficial impact on peak bone mass. However, as I found in my longitudinal studies, the level of exercise has to be in conjunction with an appropriate, well-balanced diet to avoid relative energy deficiency deficiency in sport (RED-S), which can compromise bone mineral density accumulation.m-running

At the other end of the scale, early specialisation in a single sport does not necessarily guarantee long term success. Rather, this can increase the risk of overuse injury in developing bodies, which in turn has long term consequences. Ensuring that all elements of fitness are considered may be an injury prevention strategy. I agree that injury prevention can be viewed as part of optimising sports performance, especially in young athletes for both the present and in the long term.

Sleep is a vital element in optimising health and fitness, especially in young people who may be tempted to look at mobiles or screens of other mobile devices which delays falling asleep by decreasing melatonin production. Sleep promotes mental freshness and physical elements such as boosting immunity and endogenous release of growth hormone. As Macbeth put it, sleep is the “chief nourisher in life’s great feast”.

A balanced approach to health and fitness should be promoted, with young people encouraged to take part in a range of sporting activities.

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Young athletes’ optimal health: Part 3 Consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in sports Dr N. Keay, British Association Sport and Exercise Medicine, 13/4/17

Sleep for health and sports performance Dr N. Keay, British Journal Sport Medicine, 7/2/17

Optimising health, fitness and sports performance for young people Dr N. Keay, British Journal Sport Medicine

Telegraph article

Active Healthy Kids global alliance

Poor cardiovascular fitness in young people risk for developing cardiovascular disease 

Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

IOC consensus statement on youth athletic development British Journal Sport Medicine

Optimising Health, Fitness and Sports Performance for young people

Version 2Young people need information in order to make life decisions on their health, fitness and sport training with the support of their families, teachers and coaches.

As discussed in my previous blog anima sana in corpore sano, exercise has a positive effect on all aspects of health: physical, mental and social. The beneficial impact of exercise is particularly important during adolescence where bodies and minds are changing. This time period presents a window of opportunity for young people to optimise health and fitness, both in the short term and long term.

The physical benefits of exercise for young people include development of peak bone mass, body composition and enhanced cardio-metabolic health. Exercise in young people has also been shown to support cognitive ability and psychological wellbeing.

Optimising health and all aspects of fitness in young athletes is especially important in order to train and compete successfully. During this phase of growth and development, any imbalances in training, combined with changes in proportions and unfused growth plates can render young athletes more susceptible to overuse injuries. A training strategy for injury prevention in this age group includes development of neuromuscular skills when neuroplasticity is available. Pilates is an excellent form of exercise to support sport performance.

In athletes where low body weight is an advantage for aesthetic reasons or where this confers a competitive advantage, this can lead to relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Previously known as the female athlete triad, this was renamed as male athletes can also be effected. The consequences of this relative energy deficiency state are negative effects on metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, protein synthesis and immunity. If this situation arises in young athletes, then this is of concern for current health and may have consequences for health moving into adulthood.

A well informed young person can make decisions to optimise health, fitness and sports performance.

Link to Workshops

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Optimal Health: Especially Young Athletes! Part 3 – Consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports Dr N. Keay, British Association Sport and Exercise Medicine 13/4/17

Report from Chief Medical Officer

Cognitive benefits of exercise

Injuries in young athletes

Young people: neuromuscular skills for sports performance

IOC consensus statement\

Exercise and fitness in young people – what factors contribute to long term health? Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine