Optimising Health and Athletic Performance

FactorsWordCloud4

In order to improve sports performance, athletes periodise their training, nutrition and recovery within the context of a training season. For those not in exercise training, these controllable lifestyle factors correspond to exercise, diet and sleep, which require modification during the lifespan. In old money, this was called preventative medicine. Taking this a step further, rather than preventing disease, this proactive, personalised approach optimises health. Health should be a positive combination of physical, mental and social well being, not simply an absence of illness.

Failure to balance these lifestyle factors in an integrated fashion leads to negative outcomes. An athlete may experience maladaptation, rather than the desired adaptations to exercise training. For non-athletes an adverse combination of lifestyle factors can lead to suboptimal health and a predisposition to developing chronic disease.

What are the fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the aetiology of the clinical spectrum of suboptimal health, suboptimal sports performance and chronic disease?

Inflammation A degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by exercise training is required to drive desired adaptations to support improved sport performance. However, prolonged, elevated levels of inflammation have adverse effects on health and underpin many chronic disease states. For example, inflammation is a contributing pathophysiological factor in the development of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis in cardiovascular disease. What drives this over-response of the inflammatory process? Any combination of adverse lifestyle factors. Adipose tissue has an Endocrine function, releasing a subgroup of cytokines: adipokines which have peripheral and central signalling roles in energy homeostasis and inflammation. In a study of Belgian children, pro-inflammatory energy related biomarkers (high leptin and low adiponectin) were associated with decreased heart rate variability and hence in the long term increased risk of cardiovascular disease. For those with a pre-existing chronic inflammatory condition, response to treatment can be optimised with personalised lifestyle interventions.

Metabolism Non-integrated lifestyle factors can disrupt signalling pathways involved in glucose regulation, which can result in hyperinsulinaeamia and insulin resistance. This is the underlying pathological process in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome and metabolic inflexibility. Non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise and nutrition, synchronised with endogenous circadian rhythms, can improve these signalling pathways associated with insulin sensitivity at the mitochondrial level.

Intriguingly, evidence is emerging of the interaction between osteocalcin and insulin, in other words an Endocrine feedback mechanism linking bone and metabolic health. This is reflected clinically with increased fracture risk found amongst type 2 diabetics (T2DM) with longer duration and higher HbA1C.

Hormone imbalance The hypothalamus is the neuroendocrine gatekeeper of the Endocrine system. Internal feedback and external stimuli are integrated by the hypothalamus to produce an appropriate Endocrine response from the pituitary gland. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome involves disruption to the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis with resistance to hormones secreted from adipose tissue (leptin) and the stomach (ghrelin). Further evidence for the important network effects between the Endocrine and metabolic systems comes from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although women with this condition typically present to the Endocrine clinic, the underlying aetiology is metabolic dysfunction with insulin resistance disrupting the hypothamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The same pathophysiology of disrupted metabolic signalling adversely impacting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis also applies to males.

In athletes, the exact same signalling pathways and neuroendocrine systems are involved in the development of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) where the underlying aetiology is imbalance in the periodisation of training load, nutrition and recovery.

Gastrointestinal tract In addition to malabsorption issues such as coeliac disease and non-gluten wheat sensitivity, there is emerging evidence that the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota plays a significant role in health. The microbiome of professional athletes differs from sedentary people, especially at a functional metabolic level. Conversely, an adverse gut microbiome is implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity and T2DM, via modulation of enteroendocrine hormones regulating appetite centrally and insulin secretion peripherally.

Circadian disregulation As previously discussed, it is not just a question of what but WHEN you eat, sleep and exercise. If there is conflict in the timing of these lifestyle activities with internal biological clocks, then this can disrupt metabolic and endocrine signally. For example, in children curtailed sleep can impact glucose control and insulin sensitivity, predisposing to risk of developing T2DM. Eating too close to the onset of melatonin release in the evening can cause adverse body composition, irrespective of what you eat and activity levels. In those with pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, such as PCOS, timing of meals has an effect on insulin levels and hence reproductive Endocrine function. The immune system displays circadian rhythmicity which integrated with external cues (for example when we eat/exercise/sleep) optimises our immune response. For athletes competing in high intensity races, this may be more favourable in terms of Endocrine and metabolic status in the evening.

Psychology Psychological stress impacts the key pathophysiological mechanisms outlined above: metabolic signalling, inflammation and neuroendocrine regulation, which contribute to Endocrine and metabolic dysfunction. Fortunately stress is a modifiable lifestyle risk factor. In the case of functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (where nutrition/exercise/sleep are balanced), psychological intervention can reverse this situation.

Conclusion Putting this all together, if the modifiable lifestyle factors of exercise, nutrition, sleep are optimised in terms of composition and timing, this improves metabolic and Endocrine signalling pathways, including neuroendocrine regulation. Preventative Medicine going beyond preventing disease; it optimises health.

BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

 

References

Athletic Fatigue: Part 2 Dr N. Keay

From population based norms to personalised medicine: Health, Fitness, Sports Performance Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training Dr N. Keay

Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Longitudinal Associations of Leptin and Adiponectin with Heart Rate Variability in Children Frontiers in Physiology 2017

A Proposal for a Study on Treatment Selection and Lifestyle Recommendations in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: A Danish Multidisciplinary Collaboration on Prognostic Factors and Personalised Medicine Nutrients 2017

Assessment of Metabolic Flexibility by Means of Measuring Blood Lactate, Fat, and Carbohydrate Oxidation Responses to Exercise in Professional Endurance Athletes and Less-Fit Individuals Sports Medicine 2017

Skeletal muscle mitochondria as a target to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes mellitus Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Insulin and osteocalcin: further evidence for a mutual cross-talk Endocrine 2017

HbA1c levels, diabetes duration linked to fracture risk Endocrine Today 2017

The cellular and molecular bases of leptin and ghrelin resistance in obesity Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2017

Metabolic and Endocrine System Networks Dr N. Keay

Adiponectin and resistin: potential metabolic signals affecting hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis in females and males of different species Reproduction 2017

Optimal Health: For All Athletes! Part 4 – Mechanisms Dr N. Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine 2017

Ubiquitous Microbiome: impact on health, sport performance and disease Dr N. Keay

The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level Gut. BMJ

Interplay between gut microbiota, its metabolites and human metabolism: Dissecting cause from consequence Trends in Food Science & Technology 2016

Temporal considerations in Endocrine/Metabolic interactions Part 1 Dr N. Keay

Temporal considerations in Endocrine/Metabolic interactions Part 2 Dr N. Keay

Sleep Duration and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Paediatrics 2017

Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat Am J Clin Nutr. 2017

Effects of caloric intake timing on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome Clin Sci (London)

Immunity around the clock Science

Effect of Time of Day on Performance, Hormonal and Metabolic Response during a 1000-M Cycling Time Trial PLOS

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress — a modifiable risk factor Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2017

Recovery of ovarian activity in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea who were treated with cognitive behaviour therapy Fertil Steril

 

Athletic Fatigue: Part 2

A degree of athletic fatigue following a training session, as described in part 1, is required to set in motion mechanisms to drive beneficial adaptations to exercise. At what point does this process of functional over-reaching tip into non-functional over-reaching denoted by failure to improve sports performance? Or further still along the spectrum and time scale, the chronic situation of overtraining and decrease in performance? Is this a matter of time scale, or degree, or both?

Slide1
Integrated Periodisation of Training Load, Nutrition and Recovery keeps an individual on the green plateau, avoiding descent into the red zone, due to an excess or deficiency

Determining the tipping point between these fatigue situations is important for health and performance. A first step is always to exclude underlying organic disease states, be these of Endocrine, systemic inflammatory or infective aetiologies. Thereafter the crucial step is to assess whether the periodisation of training, nutrition and recovery are integrated over a training block and in the longer term over a training season.

What about the application of Endocrine markers to monitor training load? Although the recent studies described below are more applicable to research scenarios, they give some interesting insights into the interactive networks effects of the Endocrine system and the multifactorial nature of fatigue amongst individual athletes.

In the short term, during a 2 day rowing competition, increases in wakening salivary cortisol were noted followed by return towards baseline in subsequent 2 day recovery. Despite individual variability with salivary cortisol measurement, this does at least offer a noninvasive way to adjust training loads around competition time for elite athletes.

Over an 11 day stimulated training camp and recovery during the sport specific preparatory phase of the training season, blood metabolic and Endocrine markers were measured. In the case of an endurance based training camp in cyclists, a significant increase in urea (due to protein breakdown associated with high energy demand training) and decrease in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) from baseline were noted. Whereas for the strength-based athletes for ball sports, an increase in creatine kinase (CK) was seen, as a result of muscle damage. This study demonstrates how different markers of fatigue are specific to sport discipline and mode of training. Large inter-individual variability existed between the degree of change in markers and degree of fatigue.

In the longer term, for the case of overtraining syndrome potential Endocrine markers have been reviewed. Whilst basal levels of most measured hormones remained stable, a blunted submaximal exercise response of growth hormone (GH), prolactin and ACTH could be indicative of developing overtraining syndrome. Whilst this review is interesting, dynamic testing is not a practical approach and these findings are not specific to over training. Rather this blunted dynamic exercise response would indicate relative suppression of the neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary axis which could potentially involve other stressors such as inadequate sleep or poor nutrition. Although basal levels may lie “within the normal range”, if both pituitary derived stimulating hormone and end endocrine gland hormone concentrations fall in the lower end of the normal ranges (eg low end of range TSH and T4) this is consistent with mild hypothalamic suppression observed over the range of training and fatigue conditions (functional/non-functional and overtraining) and/or Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S).

Although the studies above are of research interest, non invasive monitoring, specific to an athlete is more practical for monitoring the effects of training. Several useful easily measurable metrics can give clues: resting heart rate, heart rate variability, power output. Tools on Strava and Training Peaks provide practical insights in monitoring training effectiveness via these metrics. A range of mobile apps makes it ever easier to augment a personal training log to include these training metrics, along with feel, sleep and nutrition. Such a log provides feedback on health and fitness for the individual athlete, in order to personalise training plans. Certainly adding the results from any standard basal blood tests will also help add to the picture, along the lines of building a longitudinal personal biological passport. After all, “normal ranges” are based on the general population, of which top level athletes may represent a subgroup. The more personalised the metics recorded over a long time scale, the more sensitive and useful the process to guide improvement in sport performance.

Context is key when considering athletic fatigue: temporal considerations and individual variation. Certainly the interactive network effects of the Endocrine system are important in determining the degree of adaptation to exercise and therefore sports performance. However the Endocrine system acts in conjunction with many other systems (metabolic, immune and inflammatory), in determining the effectiveness of training in improving sports performance. So it is not surprising that one metric or marker in isolation is not predictive of fatigue status in individual athletes.

For more discussion on Health, Hormones and Human Performance come to the British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine annual conference

References

Athletic Fatigue: Part 1

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training

Temporal considerations in Endocrine/Metabolic interactions Part 1

Fatigue, sport performance and hormones..more on the endocrine system Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Sport Performance and RED-S, insights from recent Annual Sport and Exercise Medicine and Innovations in Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conferences Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Capturing effort and recovery: reactive and recuperative cortisol responses to competition in well-trained rowers British Journal of Sports Medicine

Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps Plos One

Hormonal aspects of overtraining syndrome: a systematic review BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2017

Clusters of Athletes – A follow on from RED-S blog series to put forward impact of RED-S on athlete underperformance Dr N Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine 2017

Strava Fitness and Freshness Science4Performance 2017

From population based norms to personalised medicine: Health, Fitness, Sports Performance Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Sports Endocrinology – what does it have to do with performance? Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Athletic Fatigue: Part 1

Interpreting athletic fatigue is not easy. Consideration has to be given to context and time scale. What are the markers and metrics that can help identify where an athlete lies in the optimal balance between training, recovery and nutrition which support beneficial adaptations to exercise whilst avoiding the pitfalls of fatigue and maladaptation? This blog will discuss the mechanisms of athletic fatigue in the short term.

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Proposed causes of fatigue dependent on duration and intensity of training session

In the short term, during an endurance training session or race, the temporal sequence of athletic fatigue depends on duration and intensity. It is proposed that below lactate threshold (LT1), a central mechanism governs: increasing central motor drive is required to maintain skeletal muscular power output until neuromuscular fatigue cannot be overcome. From lactate threshold (LT1) to lactate turn point (LT2), a combination of central and peripheral factors (such as glycogen depletion) are thought to underpin fatigue. During high intensity efforts, above LT2 (which correspond to efforts at critical power), accumulation of peripheral metabolites and inability to restore homeostasis predominate in causing fatigue and ultimately inability to continue, leading to “task failure”. Of course there is a continuum and interaction of the mechanisms determining this power-duration relationship. As glycogen stores deplete this impacts muscle contractility by impairing release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle. Accumulation of metabolites could stimulate inhibitory afferent feedback to central motor drive for muscle contraction, combined with decrease in blood glucose impacting central nervous system (CNS) function.

Even if you are a keen athlete, it may not be possible to perform a lactate tolerance or VO2 max test under lab conditions. However a range of metrics, such as heart rate and power output, can be readily collected using personalised monitoring devices and then analysed. These metrics are related to physiological markers. For example heart rate and power output are surrogate markers of plasma lactate concentration and thus can be used to determine training zones.

A training session needs to provoke a degree of training stress, reflected by some short term fatigue, to set in motion adaptations to exercise. At a cellular level this includes oxidative stress and exerkines released by exercising tissues, backed up by Endocrine responses that continue to take effect after completing training during recovery and sleep. Repeated bouts of exercise training, followed by adequate recovery, result in a stepwise increase in fitness. Adequate periodised nutrition to match variations in demand from training also need to be factored in to prevent the Endocrine system dysfunction seen in Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S), which impairs Endocrine response to training and sports performance. Integrated periodisation of training/recovery/nutrition is essential to support beneficial multi-system adaptations to exercise on a day to day time scale, over successive training blocks and encompassing the whole training and competition season. Psychological aspects cannot be underestimated. At what point does motivation become obsession?

In Part 2 the causes of athletic fatigue over a longer time scale will be discussed, from training blocks to encompassing whole season.

For more discussion on Health, Hormones and Human Performance come to the British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine annual conference

References

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training

Power–duration relationship: Physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance European Journal of Sport Science 2016

Strava Ride Statistics Science4Performance 2017

Sleep for health and sports performance Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) Practical Considerations for Endurance Athletes

Sports Endocrinology – what does it have to do with performance? Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Optimal Health: For All Athletes! Part 4 – Mechanisms Dr N Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine 2017

Addiction to Exercise – what distinguishes a healthy level of commitment from exercise addiction? Dr N Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

 

 

Ubiquitous Microbiome: impact on health, sport performance and disease

Microbiome Mitochondria Feedback

The gut microbiome plays a key role in regulating the optimal degree of response to exercise required to stimulate desired adaptive changes.

We have at least as many bacterial cells as human cells in our bodies. We are all familiar with the effects of disturbing the balance of beneficial microbes in our gut. Beyond this, the gut microbiome (the range of microbes, their genetic material and metabolites) is essential for health. An interactive feedback exists between gut microbiota and functional immunity, inflammation, metabolism and neurological function

Sports performance: endurance exercise increases metabolic, oxidative and inflammatory stress, signalled by the release of exerkines from exercising tissue. This signalling network induces adaptive responses mediated via the Endocrine system. Maladaptation to exercise can be due either to an undesirable over-response or an insufficient response.

Intricate interactive feedback links exist between mitochondria and the gut microbiota. In addition to being the power generators of all metabolically active cells, mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species during high intensity exercise. These oxidative stress signals not only mediate adaptive responses to exercise during recovery, but influence gut microbiota by regulating intestinal barrier function and mucosal immune response. Mitochondrial genetic variation could influence mitochondrial function and thus gut microbiota composition and function. Equally, the gut microbiota and its metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids, impact mitochondrial biogenesis, energy production and regulate immune and inflammatory responses in the gut to mitochondrial derived oxidative species. So nutritional strategies to support favourable gut microbiota would potentially support the beneficial effects of the interactions described above to optimise sport performance in athletes.

Conversely, disruption to favourable diversity of the gut microbiota, dysbiosis, is associated with increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress. Not a good situation for either health or sport performance. Alteration to the integrity of the intestinal wall increasing permeability can also be a factor in disrupting the composition of the gut microbiota. The resultant increased antigen load due to bacterial translocation across the gut wall is linked to increased inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. “Leaky gut” can occur in high level endurance exercise where splanchnic blood flow is diverted away from the gut to exercising tissues for long periods of time, resulting in relative hypo-perfusion and an effective re-perfusion injury on stopping exercise. In the longer term the increased levels of inflammation, oxidative stress and antigen load impair adaptation to exercise and are associated with endocrine dysfunction in chronic disease states, for example autoimmune conditions, metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity) and depression.

Evidence links the composition of the gut microbiota to changes in circulating metabolites and obesity. For example, low abundance of certain species of gut microbiota reduces levels of circulating amino acid glutamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter precursor. Bariatric surgery is associated with changes in the release of gut hormones regulating food intake behaviour and energy homeostasis. In addition, beneficial changes are seen in the gut microbiota which could directly or indirectly support weight loss, via action on gut hormones.

Metformin is frequency used to improve insulin sensitivity in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the mechanism is poorly understood. There is now evidence that the effect of metformin is mediated via changes in gut microbiota diversity. Transfer of stool from those treated with metformin improves insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition metformin regulates genes in some gut microbiota species that encode metalloproteins or metal transporters, which are know to be effective ligands. The pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and obesity involves an inflammatory component which is triggered by gut dysbiosis and bacterial translocation, with increased generation of oxidative species. Probiotics have a potential role in regulating the redox status of the host via their metal ion chelating ability and metabolite production, which has an impact on the production of ROS and associated signalling pathways. Prebiotics found in dietary polyphenols promote these actions of favourable gut microbiota, which is of benefit in metabolic syndrome.

Recently it has been postulated that the gut microbiome, apart from playing a crucial role in health and pathogenesis of disease states, also impacts brain development, maturation, function and cognitive processes.

Understanding the role of the gut microbiome on metabolism, inflammation and redox status is very relevant to athletes where an optimal response to exercise training supports adaptations to improve performance, whereas an over or under response in these pathways results in maladaptive responses.

For further discussion on Health, Hormones and Human Performance, come to the BASEM annual conference

References

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training Dr N. Keay

Inflammation: Why and How Much? Dr N.Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine 2017

The Crosstalk between the Gut Microbiota and Mitochondria during Exercise Front Physiol. 2017

Gut Microbiota, Bacterial Translocation, and Interactions with Diet: Pathophysiological Links between Major Depressive Disorder and Non-Communicable Medical Comorbidities Psychother Psychosom 2017

Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention Nature Medicine 2017

Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug Nature Medicine 2017

L’altération de la perméabilité intestinale : chaînon manquant entre dysbiose et inflammation au cours de l’obésité ? Med Sci (Paris)

Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria  Nutrients 2017

The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity Front. Immunol 2017

Commentary: Dietary Polyphenols Promote Growth of the Gut Bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and Attenuate High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Front. Immunol., 27 July 2017

Gut microbial communities modulating brain development and function Gut Microbes

 

 

Metabolic and Endocrine System Networks

EndoMetaNetworks

What are the most effective strategies to optimise health and performance? There are ever more emerging possibilities, permutations and combinations to chose from.

The simple answer is that the most effective option will depend on your starting point and what you are trying to achieve. In all cases exercise and activity levels are the fundamental basis for health and performance. Regarding nutritional strategies to support effective exercise adaptations, no single component of your dietary intake can be considered in isolation. After all, the metabolic pathways and Endocrine axes in your body work as an interactive network, with an important temporal dimension.

Emerging evidence implicates resistance to the anabolic pancreatic hormone, insulin, as the underlying pathological process in the development of metabolic syndrome. What type of diet might drive or conversely counter this process involving metabolism and the Endocrine system? The standard approach, of calorie restriction and aggressive pharmacological treatment of raised lipids, does not produce the anticipated reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Rather the synergistic effect of a diet high in both fat and carbohydrate induces hypothalamic inflammation and dysfunction in the control system of energy metabolism. The hypothalamus is the neuroendocrine gatekeeper providing the crucial link between internal and external stimuli and homeostasis of the internal milieu through integrated Endocrine responses. Intriguingly there is as an inflammatory component to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

The interaction between metabolic, Endocrine and inflammatory networks is seen in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical diagnosis of PCOS relies on two of three diagnostic criteria (menstrual disturbance, hyperandrogenism, ovarian morphology). However, the underlying metabolic disruption for all phenotypes of the condition, from overweight to slim, is insulin resistance. The link between adverse body composition, metabolic and Endocrine dysfunction has recently been described. Adipokines, a class of cytokine, including adiponectin and resistin are produced by adipose tissue and exert an effect on metabolism, including insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Changes in plasma concentrations and/or expression of adipokines are seen in metabolic dysfunction and potentially have direct and indirect effects on the hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS.

Further evidence of the crucial interaction between metabolic and Endocrine systems and health was found in a longitudinal study of children, quantifying heart rate variability and the energy and inflammatory related biomarkers leptin (atherogenic) and adiponectin (anti-atherogenic) as potential predictive markers in cardiovascular screening/prevention.

Exogenous hormones impact not only the endogenous Endocrine system, but have metabolic effects. The intended purpose of the combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is to suppress ovulation. Another effect on the Endocrine system is to increase production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds free testosterone. This has a therapeutic effect in the treatment of PCOS to lower elevated testosterone, however this may not be such a desirable effect in female athletes, where higher range testosterone levels as associated with performance advantages in certain power events. In the case of female athletes with relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S), use of the OCP masks underlying hypothalamic amenorrhoea and is not effective in bone health protection. Further areas where Endocrine manipulation impacts metabolism are an increase in oxidative stress with OCP use and alterations in nutritional requirements due to alteration of absorption of vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B complex and magnesium, which are vital for enzymic processes involved in energy production. Yet an elevation of ferritin as an acute phase reactant is seen. These interactions of Endocrine and metabolic networks are particularly important considerations for the female athlete.

There is no single elixir for health and performance.  We are individuals with subtle differences in our genetic and epigenetic make up, including the diversity of our microbiome. Furthermore, the Endocrine and metabolic milieu changes during our lifespan. Personalised health and performance strategies must take account of the complex, intricate interactions between the Endocrine and metabolic networks.

For further discussion on Health, Hormones and Human Performance, come to the BASEM annual conference

References

One road to Rome: Metabolic Syndrome, Athletes, Exercise Dr N.Keay

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training Dr N. Keay

Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation Molecular Metabolism June 2017

Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions British Journal of Sport and Exercise Medicine

Adiponectin and resistin: potential metabolic signals affecting hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis in females and males of different species Reproduction: Journal for the Society of Reproduction and Fertility 2017

Longitudinal Associations of Leptin and Adiponectin with Heart Rate Variability in Children Front. Physiol 2017

AKR1C3-mediated adipose androgen generation drives lipotoxicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017

Hormones and Sports Performance Dr N. Keay

Mechanisms for optimal health…for all athletes! Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sport and Exercise Medicine

Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives Sports Medicine – Open

Oral contraceptives and changes in nutritional requirements European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences

Inflammation: Why and How Much? Dr N. Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine 2017

 

 

One road to Rome: Metabolic Syndrome, Athletes, Exercise

One road to Rome

Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of symptoms including: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

The underlying pathological process is insulin resistance which distorts metabolism. Temporal and mechanistic connections have been described between hyperinsulinaemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin levels rise, potentially stimulated by excess intake of refined carbohydrates and in addition the metabolic actions of insulin are attenuated on target tissues such as the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. At a cellular level, inflammatory changes play a part in this metabolic dis-regulation. Mitochondrial action in skeletal muscle is impaired, compromising the ability to oxidise fat as a substrate, thus resulting in muscle glycolysis and a consequent rise in blood lactate.

Although much attention has been focused on restricting calories and treating elevated lipids with medication (statins), evidence is now emerging that this does not have the anticipated effect of reducing mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, it has been proposed that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in metabolism, inflammation and immunity.

Metabolic syndrome usually conjures an image of an overweight person with or on the verge of developing T2DM. However there is an interesting group of slim people who are also are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome due to insulin resistance. The majority of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present with menstrual disturbance of some description. However not all display the textbook characteristics of Stein-Leventhal syndrome (overweight, hirsute and with skin problems). There is in fact of spectrum of clinical phenotypes ranging from the overweight to the slim. In all phenotypes of PCOS, the crucial uniting underlying metabolic disturbance is insulin resistance. The degree of insulin resistance has been shown to be related to adverse body composition with increased ratio of whole body fat to lean mass.

Although this confuses the picture somewhat, it also simplifies the approach. In all cases the single most important lifestyle modification is exercise.

Exercise improves metabolic flexibility: the ability to adapt substrate oxidation to substrate availability. Endurance exercise training amongst athletes results in improved fat oxidation and right shift of the lactate tolerance curve. Conversely metabolic inflexibility associated with inactivity is implicated in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

What about nutritional strategies that might improve metabolic flexibility? Ketogenic diets can either be endogenous (carbohydrate restricted intake) or exogenous (ingestion of ketone esters and carbohydrate). Low carbohydrate/high fat diets (terms often used interchangeably with all types of ketogenic diets) have been shown to improve fat oxidation and potentially mitigate cognitive decline in older people.

However, in the case of athletes, the benefits do not necessarily translate to better performance. Despite reports of such diets enhancing fat oxidation and favourable changes in body composition, a recent study demonstrates that this, in isolation, does not translate into improved sport performance. A possible explanation is the oxygen demand of increased oxidation of fat needs to be supported by a higher oxygen supply. The intermediate group of endurance athletes in this study, on the periodised carbohydrate intake, fared better in performance terms. Another recent study confirmed that a ketogenic diet failed to improve the performance of endurance athletes, in spite of improving fat metabolism and body composition. Despite small numbers, this warrants particular mention as the majority of participants were women, who are in general very underrepresented in scientific studies.

In all likelihood, the reason that these type of diets (ketogenic, high fat/low carb: not always well defined!) did not improve sport performance is that only one aspect of metabolism was impacted and quantified. Although fat oxidation, modified via dietary interventions, is certainly an important component of metabolism, the impact on the interactive network effects of the Endocrine system should be evaluated in the broader context of circadian rhythm. For athletes this goes further, to include integrated periodisation of nutrition, training and recovery to optimise performance, throughout the year.

In addition to dietary interventions, medical researchers continue to explore the use of exercise mimetics and metabolic modulators, to address metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, some have sought their use as a short cut to improved sport performance. Many of these substances appear on the WADA banned list for athletes. However the bottom line is that it is impossible to mimic, either through a dietary or pharmacological intervention, the multi-system, integrated interplay between exercise, metabolism and the Endocrine system.

Only one road to Rome!

Whatever your current level of activity, whether reluctant exerciser or athlete, the path is the same to improve health and performance. This route is exercise, supported with periodised nutrition and recovery. Exercise will automatically set in motion the interactive responses and adaptations of your metabolic and Endocrine systems.

For further discussion on Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of SEM come to the BASEM annual conference 22/3/18: Health, Hormones and Human Performance

References

Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes Nature Medicine 2017

Inflammation: Why and How Much? Dr N. Keay, British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine

The cholesterol and calorie hypotheses are both dead — it is time to focus on the real culprit: insulin resistance Clinical Pharmacist 2017

Skeletal muscle mitochondria as a target to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes mellitus Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2016

The essential role of exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 2017

β cell function and insulin resistance in lean cases with polycystic ovary syndrome Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017

The many faces of polycystic ovary syndrome in Endocrinology. Conference Royal Society of Medicine 2017

Association of fat to lean mass ratio with metabolic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome Hum Reprod 2014

Sedentary behaviour is a key determinant of metabolic inflexibility Journal of physiology 2017

International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017

A cross-sectional comparison of brain glucose and ketone metabolism in cognitively healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease Exp Gerontol. 2017

Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers J Physiol. 2017

Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017

Sports Endocrinology – what does it have to do with performance? Dr N. Keay, British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017

Hormones and Sports Performance

Endocrine system: balance and interplay in response to exercise training